International warfare i used to be a watershed in sleek international heritage. at the battlefield, hundreds of thousands have been slaughtered via chemical conflict, computing device weapons, and trench warfare—and this mindless bloodletting continues to be the main enduring legacy of the nice conflict. serious to figuring out the war’s value is the often-overlooked emergence of a “modern” dynamic grassroots peace circulate that either adverse warfare and sought to abolish its social causes.
Edited by way of Scott H. Bennett and Charles F. Howlett, Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in international battle I the United States offers basic files, such a lot anthologized for the 1st time, illustrating competition and resistance to the conflict and the government’s efforts to advertise the warfare and limit dissent. This clean assortment highlights the huge variety of antiwar sentiment: non secular and secular, liberal and radical, pacifist and nonpacifist, together with conscientious objection. It additionally addresses key matters raised through the antiwar movement—particularly dissent in wartime, civil liberties, the which means of patriotism, and citizen peace activism—that stay very important to figuring out American democracy.
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In January of 1941, Margie Bauer is named to lively responsibility within the military Nurse Corps of the U.S. military Reserves, and her mom unfortunately laments, “You’re a able lady, however the world’s a deadly position. ” regardless of her mother’s matters, Margie is thrilled whilst she learns her project is to Sternberg medical institution in Manila, Philippines—the Pearl of the Orient.
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31 The afsc did not limit its humanitarian and relief work to France and Russia. By December 1919 afsc units were in Germany, Austria, Serbia, Poland, and Palestine. They operated public health and sanitation projects, fed civilians, assisted refugees, distributed clothing, worked farms, and offered other aid. In Germany and Austria the afsc, working with the American Relief Administration, fed more 22 . Introduction than one million children. ”32 The Friends were not alone in their humanitarian work.
The first afsc Introduction . 21 volunteers were trained at Haverford College, a Quaker institution. Organized by physician James A. Babbitt and by Quaker philosophy professor Rufus M. Jones, the “Haverford Unit” provided relief and reconstruction in France. In 1917 the afsc sent its first group, composed of fift y-one men and three women, to France; most of these volunteers were Quakers, although several Mennonites, Brethren, and for members were included. In France afsc workers drove ambulances; reconstructed homes, roads, and villages; assisted refugees; provided funds to staff and supply the maternity hospital at Châlons-sur-Marne; and operated other humanitarian projects.
Most notably, the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 offered cos and pacifists two major concessions. ” This language broadened the 1917 conscription law, which limited co status to members of the historic peace churches and other religious sects with antiwar creeds. ”44 The latter option led to the creation of the Civilian Public Service (1941–47), a program that sought to honor pacifist conscience and enrolled twelve thousand cos. ”45 With machine guns, poison gas, barbed wire, tanks, airplanes, and aerial bombing, the Great War unleashed a specter of unprecedented destruction; in the process, it demonstrated that humans had the technological means to threaten human existence.