By Yuen Chung Kwong
The 3rd within the "Series on Scalable Computing", this paintings includes 5 articles describing major advancements within the box. It addresses issues equivalent to clusters, parallel instruments, load balancing, cellular structures, and structure dependence.
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While these schemes emphasize mostly the application support on homogeneous systems, the AppLeS project  provides application-level scheduling agents on heterogeneous systems, taking into account their actual resource performance. Another approach is to include cluster computing capabilities into the operating system itself. MOSIX (Multicomputer OS for UNIX)  is such a software package. It enhances the Linux kernel and allows any size cluster of X86/Pentium based workstations and servers to work cooperatively as if part of a single system.
Gehring, and A. Reinefeld. Heterogeneous Message Passing and a Link to Resource Management. Journal of Supercomputing, Vol. 11, 1997, pp. 355-369.  M. Brune, J. Gehring, A. Keller, and A. Reinefeld. RSD - Resource and Service Description. Intl. Symp. on High Performance Computing Systems and Applications HPCS'98, Edmonton Canada, Kluwer Academic Press, May 1998.  M. Brune, A. Reinefeld, and J. Varnholt. A Resource Description Environment for Distributed Computing Systems. Proc. 8th Intern.
New machines, networks, protocols, schedulers, system software, and metalayers can be added at any point—some of them even without the need to 28 Anatomy of a Resource Management System for HPC Clusters Chapter 1 re-boot the system. • It is reliable. Recovery is done at the machine layer. Faulty components are restarted and malfunctioning modules are disabled. The center information manager (CIS) is passive and can be restarted or mirrored. • It is scalable. There exists no central instance. The hierarchical approach allows to connect to other centers' resources.