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By R. Gilles (Eds.)

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Extra info for Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology. Invited Lectures

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We attempted to survey all the literature for published accounts on Iowa butterflies. In many cases we were not able to locate the specimens on which the published records were based and hence had to rely on the presumed accuracy of the determinations. In most cases, this method is reliable because of the commonness of the species or the usage of the name; presumed errors in distributional accounts are clearly indicated in appropriate places in the text. We have also relied heavily on our own fieldwork and on that of colleagues and collaborators over the last five decades.

Is it spreading? In which direction? How? The list of questions is almost endless — but all need solutions. In a similar manner, the Common Wood-nymph (Cercyonis pegala), which we often see as a dark and relatively small prairie species, seems to embody characteristics of three named subspecies in Iowa populations. Two of these, C. p. nephele and C. p. olympus, are uniformly dark brown above, without a trace of a yellow medial band on the fore wing. The other, C. p. alope, has this yellow band surrounding the fore-wing ocelli (eyespots).

Austin. In 1887 Scudder described Atrytone kumskaka Scud. ]). According to contemporary corresponding members of the Davenport Acad‑ emy of Science (see Proceedings, vol. 3, p. 62), both Allen and Austin were residents of Cambridge, Massachusetts. No doubt both contacted Scudder personally in Massachu‑ setts after having collected in Iowa. One of the first resident collectors was H. W. Parker, who also published. He taught in Grinnell and collected mostly in that vicinity, adding to Scudder’s 1869 list.

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