By Maurice Casey
In the US for the previous couple of a long time, Q discussions in the United States were principally framed through students like Robinson, Kloppenborg, Mack and Crossan. of their works, those students declare, with a stunning quantity of self belief, to understand many stuff concerning the starting place, improvement, style, personality, volume and objective of Q. therefore, many a long way attaining conclusions were asserted in regards to Christian origins and the ancient Jesus. yet fact be informed, a lot of those conclusions were outfitted on little greater than hypothesis and methodological difficulties are by no means challenging to notice.
Let me attempt to summarize in brief the conclusions which were drawn through some of the parents writing books approximately Q who've established their works at the above-mentioned students. it's usually assumed (and sometimes argued) that Q used to be a unmarried Greek record, or that it may be accurately categorized in accordance with genera (e.g. "sayings of the wise") or that Q and the "community" liable for it may be particularly linked to historical Cynicism. Early Christianity, we're informed, all started with a bunch of itinerant Cynics who loved to speak about nature and who loved being a stick within the eye of traditionalism (earliest strata of Q). Afterwards, it developed into an eschatologically-oriented team with a lot nearer ties to Judaism (later strata of Q). Then, with the composition of Mark's Gospel and with the stratified Q's eventual enshrinement within the Gospel's of Matthew and Luke the origian Q used to be misplaced and all yet forgotten ... until eventually contemporary students recovered it and defined to us what all of it means.
Kloppenborg's stratification concept and Downing's, Vaage's, Crossan's and Mack's claims approximately Jesus being a "Cynic sage" have supplied renowned authors with fodder for every type of ridiculous old reconstructions concerning the lifetime of Jesus and early Christianity. In his personal old cartoon of Q learn Casey runs during the scholarship best as much as our unhappy present situation in Q scholarship, concentrating on males like Toedt, Luehrman and Kloppenborg, exhibiting how their methodologies have been very unsound and feature been permitted all-too-uncritically. Casey complains of ways Q study has develop into "beaurocratized", during which he signifies that students usually depend upon one another's earlier arguments instead of own examinations of the first resource fabric (e.g. the new discoveries at Qumran). He additionally issues to the best way arguments for Q contain loads of question-begging strategies. for instance, the arguments Kloppenborg makes use of to teach how Luke or Matthew displaced yes sayings inside Q may perhaps simply as simply be taken to teach that those sayings initially existed independently and weren't extracted from an current record (at least no longer one with its personal significant association) after which rearranged in line with the redactor's theological programme.
Casey's criticisms on contemporary Q scholarship may on my own make the publication worthy deciding to buy given that reliable criticisms like his are going nearly unheard within the ruckus of all of the sensationalist rules being proposed those days.
Casey additionally, really all at once, criticizes a number of the early Aramaic methods to the Gospels, even Matthew Black's extraordinary paintings. i discovered his comments the following insightful and a trademark of his personal reflective and demanding brain.
Casey's thesis is that no less than a few of Q used to be initially preserved in Aramaic, no longer Greek. in addition, it used to be no longer a united composition, yet can have existed as a number of self reliant sayings. The translated Greek Q existed in at the least translations earlier than Matthew and Luke acquired to it and those specified translations are detectable and in part recoverable by way of retroverting the texts into Aramaic - the language during which they have been initially preserved and which Jesus probably knew and spoke.
Casey additionally demanding situations the common assumption that Q contained not anything greater than what Matthew and Luke now carry in universal. for instance, it's always characterised as a "sayings resource" because it comprises only a few narratives. yet this declare is determined by a slightly tricky view of stratification. because it comes right down to us, Q contained a number of narratives (e.g. tales approximately John the Baptist, Christ's temptation, the therapeutic of the centurion's servant, Peter's leaving the scene and weeping bitterly after his three-fold denial, the query posed to Christ, "Who is he that struck you?").
One challenge i've got with Casey is his approach to demonstrating the Aramaic Vorlage in the back of Q: he attempts to teach how Matthew or Luke can have misinterpret or misinterpreted definite Aramaic phrases. i am not confident any of those arguments particularly carry up.
Still, the booklet comes as a refresher to me on account that i have learn a number of books in this subject now and they have frequently been from an analogous viewpoint. This booklet bargains a unique examine issues and that i imagine provides a few strong nutrients for inspiration. A extra accomplished e-book on Q that i would suggest is "Q and Early Christianity" via Christopher Tuckett. Richard Horsley has additionally written a few sturdy evaluations of Kloppenborg. For a great critique of the Cynic speculation, Craig Evans has a great bankruptcy in his booklet "Fabricating Jesus." it is a really easy learn too, in contrast to this booklet through Casey.
Read or Download An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series) PDF
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Extra resources for An Aramaic Approach to Q: Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series)
3–29. 130 Vaage, Galilean Upstarts p. 59, conspicuously not discussing J. Jeremias, The Prayers of Jesus (London, 1967), pp. 100–102; New Testament Theology, pp. 199–201, which is nonetheless recorded at p. 167 n. 30. 129 The state of play 41 Judaism. In their signiﬁcantly different accounts of his ministry, each of them retails a massive proportion of material about Jesus’ words and actions which is culture-speciﬁc to this Jewish framework. Both of them, and especially the more Jewish Matthew, have speciﬁcally Jewish features in their Q sayings, which have been cut out from Q versions by scholars to compare them with their ‘parallels’ elsewhere.
In Memoriam Paul Kahle, (BZAW 103. Berlin, 1968), pp. 17–28, reprinted with corrections in S. E. ), The Language of the New Testament. S 60. Shefﬁeld, 1991), pp. 112–25. 138 Guenther, ‘Sayings Gospel Q’, 52, 62. , esp. pp. 62–65. See also an earlier and equally biassed article: H. O. Guenther, ‘Greek: Home of Primitive Christianity’, Toronto Journal of Theology 5, 1989, 247–79. For Kloppenborg’s view of chreiae, see p. 31 above. For further elaboration, using ancient Greek deﬁnitions of chreiae, see B.
A variety of scholars argued that its sayings were independent of the synoptics, in some cases earlier in form, and not as Gnostic as had been thought. In 1983, S. L. Davies brought all the arguments together in an attempt to show that it should be dated c. 110 If this could be 109 On the discovery, see J. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics (London, 1958. Rev. ET 1960), esp. ch. 3; J. M. Robinson, ‘The Discovery of the Nag Hammadi Codices’, BA 42, 1979, 206–24. The standard edition of the text is now B.