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By Peter Malcolm Wallis, Brian R. Hammond

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13:16­18.  Gastroenterology 71:57­61.  53:704­707.  J.  73:723­729.  Gastroenterology, In press. 9­21.  lamblia trophozoites.  These observations suggest that direct cell to parasite contact may play an important role in damaging the host cells.  One reported the significance of bile salt deconjugation by the parasite (12) and the other the cytopathogenic effects of Giardia on cell monolayers, in vitro (11).  lamblia on HeLa and Vero cells.  30888 (9) were maintained in Diamond's TPS­1 (4) complete filter sterilized medium according to the method of Visvesvara (14).

Bar equals 5 microns for Figure 6 and 1 micron for Figure 7.  By day three, these clusters had increased in size and included trophozoites as well as cysts.  The other type of cyst (not shown) was of similar size, shape, and had a cyst wall, but appeared nonviable since the cyst usually lacked the presence of typical organelles or contained two to four nuclei within a shrunken cytoplasmic mass.  A wide variation in cyst viability was detected using the incorporation of FDA, ranging from 40­50% to less than 1%, in Giardia cysts formed in vitro.

18:1­26.  A) 148:166­168.  71:89­95.  Med.  15:743­750. 64:165­171.  49:164­171.  44:140­173.  140:222­228.  23:850­855.  549­556.  p 578.  Protozool. 32:383­390.  Gastroenterology 71:57­61.  33:1179­1183.  Microbiol. 45:65­74.  80:49­52.  Parasitologia 4:510­514.  12:851­853.  Science 92:416­417. A.  Cysts formed in vitro were both morphologically and immunologically similar to Giardia cysts formed in vivo and also were viable, as demonstrated by the uptake of fluorogenic dyes.  The inability of Giardia trophozoites to undergo encystation in vitro has raised questions as to whether host­ related factors, such as gut­associated microorganisms or nutritive factors and stimuli from the small intestine, might play a role in this process.

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