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By Dirk Geeraerts

Cognitive Sociolinguistics is a singular and burgeoning box of study which seeks to foster research into the socio-cognitive dimensions of language at a usage-based point. Advances in Cognitive Sociolinguistics brings jointly ten reviews into the social and conceptual points of language-internal edition. All ten contributions depend upon an organization empirical foundation within the kind of complex corpus-based suggestions, experimental tools and survey-based learn, or a mix of those. the hunt for tactics which may appropriately get to the bottom of the complicated and multivariate dimensions intervening within the interaction among conceptual which means and variationist components is hence one other attribute of the quantity. when it comes to its descriptive scope, the amount covers 3 major parts: lexical and lexical-semantic version, constructional version, and study on lectal attitudes and acquisition. It hence illustrates how Cognitive Sociolinguistics experiences either the adaptation of that means, and the that means of edition.

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Another profile-based uniformity measure consists of calculating uniformity within a single language variety. The internal uniformity reaches its highest value when all the speakers, in every circumstance, choose the same lexical item to denote a given concept. The internal uniformity value will decrease the more terms there are competing to denote the same concept, and the more dominant some of these terms become. The internal uniformity measure, or I/I’ measure, can be calculated with the following formulae, which are related to the external uniformity formulae presented before.

Given domains like procreation and defecation, taboo is obviously relevant for the lexical field of the human body. Negative affect is not restricted to such obvious taboo areas, however. e. we find concepts that are explicitly marked as negative and that were surveyed as such. Examples are NEUS (SPOTNAAM) ‘nose (pejorative)’, GEZICHT (SPOTNAAM) ‘face (pejorative)’, and HOOFD (SPOTNAAM) ‘head (pejorative)’. In practical terms, we did not start from these labels, but we used the same method for the identification of negative affect as for the identification of lack of familiarity: seven members of our research group rated the 206 bodily concepts in the database on a five point scale of negative affect, with 1 indicating no negative affect, and 5 a strong negative affect.

Innovative and conservative trends have emerged in both varieties, such that tradition is not the privilege of EP nor is innovation the privilege of BP. The issue of a “Brazilian language” is back on the agenda and has awakened those same passionate attitudes triggered in the past on three occasions, namely Brazil’s independence in 1822, the period of Romanticism and the period of Modernism. One example is the famous essay written by Brazilian linguist Bagno (2001). However, linguistic purism is growing stronger in Brazil nowadays.

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